Friday, September 26, 2008

The History of the Catheter

A catheter is a flexible tube inserted into some part of the body that provides a channel for fluid passage or a medical device. Depending on circumstances, a catheter may remove waste fluids from the body after a transurethral resection. The word "catheter" comes from the Greek word for "let down".
Balloon Catheter - Thomas FogartyThomas Fogarty invented the "medical industry standard" balloon embolectomy catheter. Patented in 1963, this inflated balloon extraction technique revolutionized surgical embolectomy procedures. The Foley catheter is a rubber tube with a balloon tip named after it's inventor. After insertion into the bladder via the urethra, the tip is filled using a syringe with sterilized liquid or air, in order to keep the catheter in place. This type of catheter allows for continuous draining of the bladder, important during and after surgery.
Intravenous Catheter Shield - Betty Rozier and Lisa VallinoBetty Rozier and Lisa Vallino, a mother and daughter team, invented an intravenous catheter shield to make the use of IVs in hospitals safer and easier. The computer-mouse shaped, polyethylene shield covers the site on a patient where an intravenous needle has been inserted. The "IV House" prevents the needle from being accidentally dislodged and minimizes its exposure to patient tampering. Betty Rozier and Lisa Vallino received their patent in 1993.
Ingemar Henry LundquistIngemar Henry Lundquist invented the over the wire balloon catheter that is used in the majority of angioplasty procedures in the world. Lundquist received U.S. patent 4332254 for a "system for filling and inflating and deflating a vascular dilating cathether assembly."

Thursday, September 25, 2008

Prevalence and Risk of Hypertension in Renal Disease - Data from the Czech Registry of Renal Biopsies

Eva Jancovaa, Zdenka Vankovaa, Eva Honsovad, Vera Lanskac, Romana Rysavaa, Miroslav Mertaa, Ivan Rychlikb, Ondrej Viklickye, Josef Zadrazilg, Miluse Hertlovah, Doris Sobotovai, Renata Cifkovaf, Vladimir Tesara

Key Words
Hypertension, risk factors, prevalence
Registry of biopsies
Renal biopsy
Kidney disease

Background/Aims: We intended to compare the risk and prevalence of hypertension in patients undergoing renal biopsy with those of the general population and to investigate the possible effects of various independent factors (age, sex and degree of renal insufficiency) on the prevalence of hypertension. Methods: Data obtained within the Czech Registry of Renal Biopsies over an 8-year period (1995-2002) were statistically evaluated and compared with those of the general population obtained within the Post-MONICA Study conducted in 2000/2001. Results:Hypertension was present in 1,839 out of a total of 3,601 renal patients (51.1%). The risk of hypertension in the patients with renal disease was increased in all age groups compared with the general population (OR = 1.3-5.3). The prevalence of hypertension increased significantly with age, serum creatinine and proteinuria (p < 0.001). Male sex was identified as an independent risk factor for the presence of hypertension (p < 0.01). Sex, age and glomerular filtration rate were shown to be more important determinants of the risk of hypertension than the underlying biopsy-proven diagnosis itself. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs as a common complication of renal disease, even in its early stages, and irrespective of the histological finding.
Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

Who is at risk for kidney failure related to high blood pressure?

Everyone has some risk of developing kidney failure from high blood pressure. African Americans, however, are more likely than Caucasians to have high blood pressure and its related kidney problems—even when their blood pressure is only mildly elevated. In fact, African Americans are six times more likely than Caucasians to develop hypertension-related kidney failure.2
People with diabetes also have a greater risk of developing kidney failure. Early management of high blood pressure is especially important for African Americans with diabetes.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), also part of the NIH, sponsored the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) to find effective ways to prevent high blood pressure and kidney failure in this population. The results, published in the November 20, 2002, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, showed that an ACE inhibitor was the most effective drug at slowing the progression of kidney disease in African Americans. While ACE inhibitors help reduce the risk of kidney disease, they are less effective in lowering blood pressure in African Americans than in Caucasians.

2United States Renal Data System. USRDS 2007 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2007.